D. Imam Musa loves ‘Ali Bin Yaqteen
 

Imam Musa, peace be on him, showed loyal affection and friendship for ‘Ali. For example, he visited him one day and said to his companions: -If one is happy to see one of the companions of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, than let him look at that coming (man)-he indicated with his hand to ‘Ali. One of those present asked him:

-Is ‘Ali among the people of the Garden?

-As for me, I bear witness that he is of the people of the Garden. ‘Ali sent a person to Imam Musa to ask him to invoke Allah for him. When the person was in front of the Imam, peace be on him, he said to him: -O Son of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Ali b. Yaqteen has sent me, that you may invoke Allah for him. -For the hereafter? -Yes.

-I have guaranteed that the fire will never touch ‘Ali! Dawud al-Raqqi has narrated, saying: “I visited Abi al-Hasan on the Day of Immolation (Youm al-nahr). He spoke first to me: ‘When I was in the Standing-place (of ‘Arafa), none came to my mind except ‘Ali b. Yaqteen. He was still with me. He did not separated himself from me until I finished.”

Isma‘il b. Musa has said: “I heard the righteous servant (Musa) say on al-Safa (Mountain): “My Lord, (O You Who are) in the Highest Place, forgive ‘Ali b. Yaqteen!” And Imam Musa has said: “ Of the happiness of ‘Ali b. Yaqteen is that I remembered him in the Standing-place (of ‘Arafa).” These examples indicate that Imam Musa harbored love and loyalty to ‘Ali b. Yaqteen. Without doubt the Imam was sincere to him, for he was a wonderful example of piety, righteousness, and ideals.

E. Imam Musa guides him

Imam Musa, peace be on him, took great care of ‘Ali b. Yaqteen; he had fear for him of the authority of Harun al-Rashid, for the affair of his becoming a Shi‘ite was not hidden from the followers and hirelings who sought nearness to the authority through every horrible means. The Imam came to know that such hirelings would not leave ‘Ali unless they put an end to him. So the Imam, peace be on him, undertook guiding him and raising danger from him. That was through two things:

Firstly, the Jubbah

Al-Rashid gave some excellent clothes to ‘Ali b. Yaqteen as gift; among them was an excellent, black jubbah brocaded with gold the caliphs worn. When it reached him, he immediately sent it to Imam, peace be on him, as a gift. The Imam returned it to him and wrote to him: “Keep it and do not take it out from you; you will face an affair and you will need it for the affair. When the jubbah a long with the Imam’s letter reached ‘Ali b. Yaqteen, he read the letter and kept the jubbah. He put it into a basket and set a seal on it. A period of time elapsed, ‘Ali b. Yaqteen changed his policy toward one of his boys who had knowledge of his affairs, and he immediately went to Harun and said to him: “Surely ‘Ali b. Yaqteen believe in the Imamate of Musa al-Kazim; every year he sends him the alms of his possessions, gifts, and valuable things; this year he has sent him the whole of that along with the black jubbah which you gave to him as a gift at the time so-and-so.”

The condition of al-Rashid changed when he heard of that as if that a sword hit him on the face. He angrily said: “I will discover that. If the affair is just as you have said, I will kill him. That will be as part of the punishment for him.” Then he sent a messenger for ‘Ali b. Yaqteen. When he stood before him, he turned to him and asked him: “What about the black jubbah I gave to you as gift and singled you with it from among the rest of my special group?”

Ibn Yaqteen turned to him calmly and said to: -It is with me, Commander of the faithful! It has been perfumed and put into a basket on which a seal has been set! -Fetch it now! -Yes, I hear and obey!

‘Ali summoned a servant of his and told him about where the jubbah was. He gave him the keys, and he quickly went. Shortly after that he brought the jubbah and put it before Harun. He ordered the seal and the basket to be opened. The jubbah was folded; it was as it had been before; and nothing hit it, so the anger of al-Rashid calmed, and his revolution abated; and he said to ‘Ali: “Return it to its place. Take it and go away with safety. After this we will believe no informer against you!”

Then he ordered a prize to be given to him and ordered the ignoble informer to be flogged a thousand times. He was flogged five hundred times,[1] and he perished. As for ‘Ali b. Yaqteen, he peacefully went out; Allah saved him from the punishment and tyranny of Harun. A poet has composed a poem on this miracle, saying:

The pure one (Imam Musa) returned the clothes to Ibn Yaqteen and said to him: Take them, for you will be questioned about them. Without doubt your enemy will be a loser![2]

[1] Nur al-Abbsar, p. 136. Al-Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 356. Bahr al-Anwar.
[2] Al-Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 356.

Secondly, the Wudu’

Ali b. Yaqteen performed the Wudu’ of the Sunnis. He asked the Imam to guide him to the wudu’ he performed, but he ordered him to continue performing his wudu’ for a time when he would guide him to that. The followers informed al-Rashid of ‘Ali and said many times that he was a Shi‘ite. Any way, al-Rashid decided to try him through his wudu’. At the time of the ritual prayer, he stood in one of the balconies of his palace and looked at ‘Ali; he saw him performing the wudu’ of the Sunnis; soon al-Rashid became impatient and said: “I will never believe an informer against you!” After that, the Imam wrote to him how to perform the wudu’. He mentioned to him that of what he feared for him had disappeared. A poet has composed a poem concerning this miracle, saying:

Then the state of the wudu’ is wonderful! How did he inform and tell him through the conscience? He is the eye of life; he is salvation and guidance to him who acknowledges (his Imamate) and ponders over (it)![1] Another poet has written a poem on that, saying: Were it not for Him (Musa), (‘Ali) b. Yaqteen would not leave his previous way, which is well-known. At a time when al-Rashid was in a lookout watching him during his affair (to know) how he (‘Ali) performed (his wudu’). He saw something (issued) from him other than that of which he had been informed; and denied what the informers said.

F. His Books

(Ali) b. Yaqteen was among the notables of knowledge and one of the meritorious of his time. The following are some of his books:

1. Al-Malahim; he took them from Imam al-Sadiq.[2]
2. Munazarat al-Shaak.[3]
3. Al-Masa’il; he took them from Imam Musa, peace be on him.

These books were narrated by Muhammed b. Muhammed, al-Husayn b. ‘Ubayd Allah, Muhammed b. al-Hasan, and a group (of narrators).[4]

[1] Ibid.
[2] Ibn al-Nadeem, al-Fihrast, p. 328.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Al-Shaykh al-Toosi, al-Fihrast.

G. His Death

He passed a way in the City of Peace (Baghdad) in the year 182 A. H. at the age of 57 years. Muhammed, the crown prince of al-Rashid, performed the prayer over him; that was at the time when Imam Musa was at a dark prison.[1]

214. ‘Ammar Bin Musa al-Sabati

He has been given the Kunya of Abu al-Yaqdan. He was a Kufan and lived in al-Medain. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan, Musa, peace be on them, who has said: “I asked my Lord to give me ‘Ammar al-Sabati, and He gave him to me.”[2] The biographers have mentioned that he was a Fatahi. Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned: “A Group (of traditionists) have regarded ‘Ammar al-Sabati as weak and mentioned that he is a traditionist. They have also mentioned that what he narrated alone cannot be put into practice, for he was a Fatahi, but we cannot criticize him in this way, for though he is so, he is reliable in reporting (traditions); none can criticize him for that.”[3] Al-Shaykh al-Baha’i has said: “He is trustworthy and great; he is among the companions of Imam al-Sadiq and al-Kazim; the traditions reported by him are like the authentic ones.”[4] Al-Shaykh al-Mufeed has numbered him as among the great figures from whom the lawful, the unlawful, religious decisions, and precepts are taken, and whom none can criticize. He has a book narrated by a group (of narrators).”[5]

215. ‘Ammar Bin al-Minhal Bin Meqlas al-Qaysi.

He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan, peace be on them. He had two sons: Ahmed and al-Hasan, who were both traditionists. He has a book.[6] He has been mentioned as trustworthy (in the two books entitled) al-Wajiza and al-Baligha.

216. ‘Amru Bin Riyah

He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan, peace be on them. He was a Waqifite, and so were his sons. Al-‘Allama (al-Hilli) and al-Sayyid b. Tawus have said: “He (‘Amru Bin Riyah) belonged to the Tabaria, which is a sect of the Zaydiya.[7]

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 270.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Al-Tehdhib, Chapter on Sale.
[4] Sharh al-Feqeeh.
[5] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 223.
[6] Ibid., p. 222.
[7] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 243.

217. ‘Amr Bin Muhammed Bin Yazid Abu al-Aswad, Bayya‘ al-Sabiri

He was the retainer of Thaqif; he was from Kufa; he is reliable and of great importance. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) and Abi al-Hasan (Musa), peace be on them. Imam Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on them, praised him, saying:

-By Allah, you belong to us, Ahl al-Bayt.
-May I be your ransom, do I belong to the family of Muhammed?
-Yes, by Allah, you belong to them themselves!
-Do I belong to them themselves?

-Yes, by Allah, you belong to them themselves! O ‘Amr, have you not recited the Book of Allah: Most surely the nearest of people to Ibrahim are those who followed him and this Prophet and those who believe and Allah is the guardian of the believer.[1]

He has books of which is Kitab Manasik al-Hajj wa Fara’idahu (a Book on the Rites and Duties of the Hajj).[2]

218. ‘Isa Bin Dawud al-Najjar

He is a Kufan. He is among our friends. He narrated few traditions. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him. He has a book entitled al-Tafseer.[3]

219. ‘Isa Bin ‘Abd Allah Bin Sa‘d Bin Malik al-Ash‘ari

He reported traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) and Abi al-Hasan Musa; he has Questions put forth before al-Rida, peace be on him.[4] Concerning him, Yunus b. Ya‘qub has narrated, saying: “I was in Medina; Ja‘far b. Muhammed (al-Sadiq) received me in one of its lanes. He said: ‘Yunus, go! There is by the door a man belongs to us, Ahl al-Bayt.’ When I went and reached the door, I found ‘Isa b. ‘Abd Allah al-Qummi sitting (there). I asked him:”

-Who are you?

- A man from Qum

Shortly after that the Imam came and asked them to come into the house. When they sat down, the Imam, peace be on him, turned to Yunus and asked him: I think that you have denied my words when I said that ‘Isa b. ‘Abd Allah belonged to us,

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 212.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 217.
[3] Ibid., p. 226.
[4] Ibid., p. 228.

Ahl al-Bayt?

-Yes, by Allah, he is a man from among the people of Qum. -Yunus, ‘Isa b. ‘Abd Allah belongs to us whether he is dead or alive.[1] This narration indicates that ‘Isa b. ‘Abd Allah is just and reliable, and that he devoted himself to Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them. 220. Al-‘Ays Bin al-Qasim Bin Thabit Bin ‘Ubayd Bin Mahran al-Bajali. He was an Arab Kufan. He was given the kunya of Abu al-Qasim. He is trustworthy and notable. He reported traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi Musa, peace be on him. He has a book.[2]

221. Ghalib Bin ‘Uthman

Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as one of the companions of Imam al-Kazim, peace be on him. And he has said: “He was a Waqifite.”[3]

222. Ghayyath Bin Ibrahim al-Temimi al-Asadi.

He was from Basrah and lived in Kufa. He is reliable. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan. He has a classified book on the lawful and the unlawful; the book has been narrated by a group of narrators.[4]

223. Fayyid al-Hannat

He is a Kufan. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan. He has a book narrated by ‘Uthman b. ‘Isa.[5]

224. Fadala Bin Ayyub al-Azdi

He is an Arab. He lived in al-Ahwaz. He is trustworthy in his narrating traditions. He narrated traditions on the authority of Imam Musa, peace be on him. Al-Kashi has said that our companions (the Shi‘a) have unanimously agreed on authenticity of the traditions correctly reported from them from among the companions of Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) and that they have believed them, acknowledged their ability in the science of Islamic jurisprudence and knowledge. He has a book on the ritual prayers.[6]

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 213.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 232.
[3] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 365.
[4] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 234.
[5] Ibid., 240.
[6] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 6.

225. Al-Fedl Bin Sulayman, al-Katib, al-Baghdadi

He was the secretary of al-Mansur and al-Mehdi for land taxes. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan. He wrote a book entitled Youm wa Layla (a Day and a Night).[1]

226. Al-Fedl Bin Yunus al-Katib al-Baghdadi

He reported traditions on the authority of Abi al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him. He has a book.[2] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has said: “He is a Waqifite.”[3] Ali b. Ibrahim b. Hashim narrated on the authority of Muhammed b. Salim, who has said: “When my master Musa b. Ja‘far was taken to Harun (al-Rashid), Hisham b. Ibrahim came to him and said to him: ‘My master, I have a need with al-Fedl b. Yunus and I want you to ask him to grant my need.’ The Imam went to him. When he reached him, his chamberlain came in to him and told him about the arrival of the Imam. Delight appeared on al-Fedl b. Yunus’s face, and he said to him: ‘If you are truthful, then you are free!’ He promised to give him money if he was truthful. Then he went out bared-footed. When he saw the Imam, he fell at his feet and kissed them. Then he asked him to honor his house. The Imam responded to him. When he sat down, he asked him to grant the need of Hisham b. Ibrahim, and he granted it.”[4] This narration indicate that al-Fedl b. Yunus was a loyal follower of Imam Musa, peace be on him.

227. Al-Fayd Bin al-Mukhtar al-Ju‘fui

He was from Kufa. He reported traditions on the authority of Abi Ja‘far, Abi ‘Abd Allah, and Abi al-Hasan, peace be on them. He is reliable and notable. He has a book narrated by his son Ja‘far.[5] He was the first to hear Abi ‘Abd Allah designating his son Musa, peace be on him, as an Imam. We have previously talked about him in the first part of the book.

228. Al-Qasim Bin Muhammed al-Jawhari.

He was from Kufa but he lived in Baghdad. He narrated traditions on the authority of Imam Musa, peace be on him. He has a book. [6] He has been accused of his joining the Waqifites.[7]

[1] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 237.
[2] Ibid., p. 237.
[3] Al-Fihrast.
[4] Al-Keshi, Rijal.
[5] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 239.
[6] Ibid., p. 242.
[7] Al-Keshi, Rijal.

229. Qays Bin Musa al-Sabati

He is the brother of ‘Ammar al-Sabati. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan. He is trustworthy, and the traditions narrated by him are accepted.[1]

230. Kurdawayh al-Hamadani

He is among those who narrated traditions on the authority of Imam Musa, peace be on him. The traditions narrated by him have been mentioned in the book al-Tahdhib, Chapter on Purifying Water. They have also been mentioned in the book al-Istibsar, Chapter on How to compensate Supererogatory Prayers. He has been accused of ignorance, just as it has been mentioned in the books: al-Masalik and al-Dhakhira.[2]

231. Layth Bin al-Bakhtary al-Muradi

He was given the kunya of Abu Baseer. He is reliable in his tradition. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) and Abi al-Hasan (Musa). In the authentic (tradition) of Jameel b. Darrajj is that the pegs of the earth and the great figures of the religion are four (persons): Muhammed b. Muslim, Burayd b. Mu’awiya,..., and Layth b. al-Bukhtary al-Muradi; other than that has been said concerning him. Ibn al-Ghada’iri has said: “Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, was bored with him. His companions have differed over him. As for me, I think that he has been criticized for his creed, not for his hadith. A group of the great researchers has regarded him as reliable and regarded the traditions which have been mentioned concerning dispraising him are as incorrect, and that he is as among the high class in Islam.”[3]

232. Muhammed Bin Ibrahim al-Mousili

In his (book) al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has twice numbered him as one of the companions of the Imam (Musa) al-Kazim, peace be on him. Apparently, he is an unknown Imami (Shi‘ite).[4]

233. Muhammed Bin Abi ‘Umayr al-Azdi

He was originally from Baghdad. He is among the most famous (religious) scholars of this (Shi‘ite) sect and among its notable narrators. The companions (the Shi‘a) have unanimously agreed on the authenticity of the traditions correctly reported from him, and that they have regarded his incompletely transmitted hadith as a traceable hadith. He was a contemporary of Imam al-Kazim, al-Rida, and al-Jewad, peace be on them. We will mention to gentle readers some of his affairs and conditions:

[1] Ibn Dawud, Rijal.
[2] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 38.
[3] Ibid., pp. 44-46.
[4] Ibid., p. 56.

A. His Knowledge

He was among the notable (religious) scholars and among the great jurists. The Shi‘a have unanimously agreed that he is versed in the science on Islamic jurisprudence.[1] He accompanied three Imams from among Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them. He acquired some of their pure knowledge. He supplied the science on Islamic jurisprudence with many of his traditions he heard from the blessed Imams. The jurists have regarded his incompletely transmitted hadiths as traceable hadiths. This is evidence for his high scientific position and his justice.

B. His Books

He wrote ninety-four books of which are: Kitab al-Maghazi (a Book on Ghazwas), Kitab al-Kufr wa al-Iman (a Book on Belief and Unbelief), Kitab al-Bida’ (a Book on Bida’), Kitab al-Ihtijajj fi al-Imama (a Book on Offering Pleas of the Imamate), Kitab al-Hajj (a Book on the Hajj), Kitab Fada’il al-Hajj (a Book on the Virtues of the Hajj), Kitab al-Mutt’a (a Book on Fixed-term Marriage), Kitab al-Istita‘a (a Book on Capability), Kitab al-Malahim (a Book on the Events), Kitab Youm wa Layla (a Book on Day and a Night), Kitab Manasik al-Hajj (a Book on the Rites of the Hajj), Kitab al-Siyam (a Book on Fasting), Kitab Ikhtilaf al-Hadith (a Book on Different Traditions), Kitab al-Ma‘arif (a Book on Knowledge), Kitab al-Talaq (a Book on Divorce), Kitab al-Rida‘[2] (a Book on Foster Age), and others. Unfortunately, these books were destroyed. The reason for their being damaged is that he left them in a room and some rain flowed on them and damaged them. It was said that his sister buried his books when he was imprisoned and they become lost. Any way, the world has lost the books of this great scholar.

C. His Worship

Muhammed was among the notable, the Allah-fearing and the righteous, for he was brought up in the house of the Imamate; he followed the way of Ahl al-Bayt, who renounced the world and paid no attention to the pleasures and desires wherein. The enough proof of his too much worship is the tradition reported by al-Fedl b. Shadan, who has said: “I entered Iraq and heard a person admonishing his friend, saying to him: ‘You are a man with a family and you are in need of earning for them; I have fear for that you will be blind due to your long prostration (sujud); he rebuked and scold him so much that he turned to him and said: ‘If someone became blind out of prostration (sujud), then (Muhammed) b. Abi ‘Umayr would be blind; then what is your idea about a man who performed the sajjda for giving thanks (sajjdat al-shukr) after the dawn prayer and did not raise his head until the sun came to descending (from its midday zenith).

“He told him about the worship of Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr, saying to him: ‘My Shaykh took me by the hand and we went to Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr; we

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, pp. 250-251.

ascended to him in a room; there was in his gathering a group of Shaykhs who respected and magnified him, so I asked: “-Who is this? “-This is Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr. “-The righteous, worshipful man?”[1] Such was Muhammed in his fear of Allah and piety; he was respected and magnified by those Allah-fearing and righteous; his position admired by them indicates that he had a high position and was of great importance.

D. In Prison

Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr was among the prominent figures in the world of Shi‘a due to his close relationship with the Imams from among Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on him. Meanwhile he had the general record in which were the names of the Shi‘ites. This state disturbed Harun al-Rashid and he ordered Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr to be thrown into a dark prison, and he remained in the prison for seventeen years.[2] Then he was chained and brought before Harun al-Rashid. He ordered him to tell him about the names of the Shi‘ites. He firmly refused to mention their names, and Harun ordered him to be flogged a hundred times. He said that he felt sever pain and was about to tell him of them but he heard the voice of Yunus b. ‘Abd al-Rahman saying to him: “Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr, remember your standing before Allah.” That he felt strong through his statement, was patient, did not informed (Harun) of their names, and thanked Allah.[3] From this we conclude that the Shi‘a faced intense pressure in those dark periods of time. We have mentioned some of that when we talked about the Time of Imam Musa, peace be on him.

E. His Death

Muhammed b. Abi ‘Umayr passed away in the year 217 A. H.[4]

234. Muhammed Bin Ishaq Bin ‘Ammar Bin Hayyan al-Taghlubi al-Sayrafi

He is reliable and notable. He reported traditions on the authority of Abi al-Hasan (Musa), peace be on him. He has a book.[4] Al-Shaykh al-Mufeed has said:” He was among the reliable, special group of Imam Musa and was among the men of piety and knowledge.”[5] Abu Ja‘far b. Babawayh has said: “He was among the Waqifites.” This can be refuted by that he asked the Imam:

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 364.
[2] Al-Ikhtisas.
[3] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 264.
[4] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 251.
[5] Ibid., p. 279.
[6] Al-Irshad.

-Do you not guide me to him from whom I take (the precepts of) my religion? -This son of mine, ‘Ali. Surely, my father took me by the hand and made me enter the grave of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, and said: “O My little son, surely Allah, the Great and Almighty, has said: Surely I am going to place in the earth a caliph. And most surely when Allah, the Great and Almighty, says a statement, He fulfills it.”

This narration indicates that he was a Waqifite.[1]

235. Muhammed Bin Isma‘il Bin Buzaygh

He is among the righteous persons and notables of this sect (the Shi‘a) and one of the narrators of the traditionists of Imam Musa, peace be on him. He was a follower of al-Mansur and one of the ministers in the ‘Abbasid state. Imam al-Rida, peace be on him, has said: “Surely Allah has at the doors of the oppressive those for whom He illuminates the proof and makes capable in the land, that He may through them defend His friends, set right the affairs of the Muslims, to whom the believer resort from harm, to whom resort the possessors of needs from among our Shi’ites, through them Allah makes safe the fearful believers in the land of the oppressive. It is they who are true believers; it is they who are entrusted by Allah on His earth; it is they from among His subjects whom Allah will illuminate on the Day of Resurrection, whose light shine over the inhabitants of the heavens just as the glittering stars shine over the inhabitants of the earth, due to their light the Day of Resurrection will be luminous; by Allah, they have been created for the Garden, and the Garden has been created for them; may it be agreeable for them! There is no (harm) on you, you can attain the whole of this if you wish.”

Muhammed asked: “May Allah make me your ransom, through what?” He, peace be on him, replied: “He is one of them and he delight us through delighting our believing followers. Therefore, Muhammed, be on of them.” He wrote books of which are Kitab al-Hajj (a Book on the Hajj), and Kitab Thawab al-Hajj (a Book on the Reward of the Hajj).[2]

236. Muhammed Bin Basheer

He is among the excessive Waqifites; one of those who sold their religion and their life in the next world for this world; he created jugglery, false things, lies, and heresies. He spared no effort to spoil the Muslims and to divide their unity. The following is a brief outline on his affairs:

[1] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 79.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 255.

A. His Heresies

This man was among the destroyers and mischief-makers. He apostatized from Islam due to the heresies and misleading things he founded. Among his heresies is his statement: “Whoever of the children of Imam Musa, peace be on him, claims the Imamate is a liar and not good in birth.” He regarded as unbelievers all those who believed in their Imamate and as lawful (shedding) their blood. He and his followers innovated illegal things, saying: “Surely the duties made obligatory on them by Allah, the Most High, are only performing the five prayers and fasting the Month of Ramadan.” They denied al-zekat, the hajj, and the rest of the Islamic duties. They believed in regarding as lawful all kinds of the forbidden things such as fornication, sodomy, and reincarnation. They claimed other forbidden things that indicated their unbelief and their denying Allah, the Most High.

B. His Jugglery

Muhammed b. Basheer was knowledgeable in all kinds of jugglery. He was unique in his time in that. He used his jugglery as means to seduce the simple and the simple-minded. Among the wonders of his jugglery is that he drew a picture of Imam Musa, peace be on him. He clothed it in a silk garment. He folded it. When he wanted to seduce his companions, he said to them: “Abu al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him, is with me. If you like to see him, then come with me to show him to you. They went with him, and he made them enter the house. While the picture was folded, he asked them: “Do you see anybody in the house?” “No,” they replied. Then he ordered them to go out. When they went out, he spread the picture and removed the curtain between it and them. They saw a standing picture looking like Imam Musa, peace be on him. He stood by the picture and whispered to it and spoke to it. He approached it as if that he wanted to tell it some thing in secret. Then he asked them to go out, lowered the curtains and folded the picture. Such was his behavior for a period of time in seducing, misleading, deceiving, and spreading discords among the people.

An example of his jugglery is that when Harun al-Rashid arrested him and intended to kill him, he said to him: “O Commander of the faithful, leave me and I will make you the things the kings like.” Thus, he released him and he made him norias in a wonderful way. He made plates (al-wah) and put mercury into them. The norias were full of water and poured into those plates; the mercury was reversed and the norias became wide; they functioned in this way without a machine or an engine. Harun al-Rashid admired that. Muhammed b. Isma’il made Harun al-Rashid other works that indicated his skill.

C. His Denying Imam Musa

Muhammed b. Basheer denied Imam Musa, peace be on him. He claimed that he had been raised up to the heaven, and that the one who was in prison was other than Imam Musa. Through that, he tried to spoil the beliefs of the Shi‘a and to control their legal rights, for he claimed that he was the representative of the Imam.

D. Imam Musa invokes Allah against him

When this unbeliever spread heresies and errors among the people and spoiled the Muslim young men, Imam Musa invoke Allah against him and warned the people against him. Ibn Abi Hamza al-Bataini has related, saying: [I have heard Imam Musa, peace be on him, say:] “May Allah curse Muhammed b. Basheer and make him taste the heat of the iron; he lied to me; may Allah renounce him; and I renounce him before him. O Allah, before You I renounce what Ibn Bashir claims! O Allah, rid me of him!” Then he, peace be on him, turned to Ibn Abi Hamza and said: “O ‘Ali, if someone tells lies to us, Allah makes him taste the heat of iron. Banan told lies to ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and Allah made him taste the heat of iron; al-Mughira b. Sa‘eed told lies to Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, and Allah made him taste the heat of iron; Abu al-Khattab told lies to my father, and Allah made him taste the heat of iron; and Muhammed b. Bashir, may Allah curse him told lies to me, and Allah made him taste the heat of iron. I, before Allah, renounce him; O Allah, before You I renounce what Muhammed b. Bashir claims concerning me. O Allah, relieve me of him! O Allah, rid me of him! O Allah, surely I ask You to relieve me of this dirty and unpure one (Muhammed b. Bashir)!”

From this supplication, we conclude that the Imam was displeased with this rogue (Muhammed b. Bashir), with whom he was afflicted just as his pure forefathers were afflicted with persons similar to this dirty, wicked person (Muhammed b. Bashir).

E. His Death

When the heresies of this dirty person appeared and his false beliefs spread, the local authorities arrested him, tortured him with various kinds of torture, and killed him with the worst killing.[1] He met his just reward in the world before the hereafter.

237. Muhammed Bin Bakr Bin Jinah

Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as one of the companions of the Imam (Musa) al-Kazim, peace be on him. He (Muhammed Bin Bakr) has been accused of his joining the Waqifites.[2]

238. Muhammed Bin Thabit

In his book al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has two times numbered him as one of the companions of the Imam (Musa al-Kazim), peace be on him. In the second time he mentioned that he was unknown.[3]

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, pp. 297-299.
[2] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 2, p. 89.
[3] Ibid.

239. Muhammed Bin Ja‘far Bin Sa‘d al-Aslami

It was he who wrote the first will of Imam Musa al-Kazim, peace be on him; and he bore witness in his second will.[1] We will mention the text of the will in a chapter of this book.

240. Muhammed Bin al-Harith al-Ansari

In his book al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as one of the companions of the Imam (Musa) al-Kazim, peace be on him. Apparently, he is an unknown Imami Shi‘ite;[2] similarly, he was one of the witnesses during the second will of the Imam, according to the narration of al-Kulayni. 241. Muhammed Bin Hakim al-Khath‘ami He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi ‘Abd Allah and Abi al-Hasan. He was given the kunya of Abu Ja‘far. He has a book narrated by Ja‘far b. Muhammed b. Hakim.[3] He has been praised in the book al-Wajiza.

242. Muhammed Bin Khalid

He is better known as Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Barqi.[4] In his book al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as among the companions of Imam al-Kazim, peace be on him. He was a writer and had good knowledge of traditions and the sciences of the Arabs. He has some books of which are Kitab al-Tanzil wa al-Ta‘bir (a Book on Revelation and Expression), Kitab Youm wa Layla ( a Book on a Day and a Night), Kitab al-Tafseer (a Book on the Exegesis of Qur’anic Verses), Kitab Mecca wa al-Medina (A Book on Mecca and al-Medina), Kitab Harb al-Aws wa al-Khazrajj (a Book on the Battle between al-Aws and al-Khazrajj), Kitab al-‘Ilal (a Book on the Causes), Kitab ‘Ilm al-Baari (a Book on the Knowledge of the Creator), and Kitab al-Khutab (a Book on Sermons).[5] Concerning him Ibn al-Ghada’iri has said: “Surely, he knows and denies in his traditions; he has narrated many traditions on the authority of the weak narrators and depended on incompletely transmitted hadith (mursal).” Al-Najashi has said: “He is weak in his hadith.” Another group (of reporters) has regarded him as reliable.[6]

[1] Al-Kafi.
[2] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 3, p. 98.
[3] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 276.
[4] Al-Barqi is ascribed to Barq, a valley in a village in Qum. Al-Nejashi has mentioned this book in his book al-Rijal, p. 257.
[5] Al-Nejashi, Rijal.
[6] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 3, p. 113.

243. Muhammed Bin Zarqan Bin al-Habab, the companion of Imam Musa.[1]

He has a book. His association with the Imam indicates that he is trustworthy and important.

244. Muhammed Bin Sulayman al-Basri al-Daylami

He is among the companions of Imam Musa, peace be on him. He has been accused of excessiveness. None depends on his narrating traditions due to his bad thought.[2]

245. Muhammed Bin Sinan, Abu Ja‘far al-Zahidi al-Khaza‘i

In his book al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as among the companions of Imam Musa, peace be on him. The biographers have differed over him: Some have dispraised him, and others have regarded him as trustworthy. Ibn al-Ghada’iri has said: “He is weak and excessive. He fabricated traditions. None pays attention to him.” He has been regarded as weak by: al-Muhaqiq (al-Tusi) in his al-Mu‘tabar, al-‘Allama (al-Hili) in his al-Mukhtalif, al-Shahid al-Thani in his al-Mesalik, and al-Shaykh (al-Tusi) in his al-Istibsar. Great figures other than these have also dispraised him. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid had regarded him as trustworthy and said: “He is among the men of piety, knowledge, jurisprudence, and religion.” He has also been regarded as reliable by: al-Shaykh al-Mejjlisi, al-Shaykh al-Hur al-‘Amili, and al-Hasan b. Abi Shu‘ba in his Tuhafa al-‘Uqul. Concerning him al-Kashi has narrated: [He came in to Abu al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him, one year before he was transferred to Iraq. With the Imam was his son al-Rida, peace be on him. He, peace be on him, turned to him, saying:]

-Muhammed! -Here I am! -There will be a movement this year. The Imam bowed his head. Then he raised his head, turned to Muhammed and said to him: -Allah causes the unjust to go astray, and Allah does what He pleases. -What is that? May I be your ransom! -Whoever wrongs this son of mine in his right, he indicated with his hand to his son al-Rida, peace be on him, and denies his Imamate after me is like him who wronged ‘Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be on him, and denied his Imamate after (the Prophet) Muhammed, may Allah bless him and his family.

[1] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 286.
[2] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 3, p. 122.

Muhammed understood that the Imam had announced his death before him, and that he would meet his Lord was close at hand. So he wanted to understand some secrets none knew except the Imam, saying: -By Allah, If Allah prolonged my lifetime, I would hand over to him his right and to acknowledge his Imamate. I bear witness that he is the proof of Allah over His creatures after you, the summoner to His religion. -Muhammed, Allah will prolong your lifetime, and you (must) summon (the people) to his Imamate and to that of him who would take his place after him.

-Who is that? -Muhammed, his son. -Consent and submission? -Yes. I have found in the page of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, that you are clearer than the lightning at a dark night. This narration is a proof of that Muhammed was among the remarkable believers and of the righteous people. Other narrations have praised his merits, his being trustworthy, and his nearness to Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them. These viewpoints have been mentioned by al-Muhaqiq al-Mamaqani, may Allah have mercy on him, who has said: “Surely the strongest opinion is that the man (Muhammed) is trustworthy; his beliefs are true; his narration is accepted. As for those who have accused him of excessiveness, they are either mistaken about his inclination to excessiveness firstly and his firmness when Saffwan talked with him or due to what I have already heard from some pious people who said that he was among those who had the secrets of the Imam, and that he narrated some of their secrets to which the excessive clung. So the companions criticized him to get rid of that which is more corrupt, and which is that the excessive feel strength through that which is corrupt. If he was really weak, a great group from among our great companions would not narrate (traditions) on his authority.”[1]

Muhammed wrote some books of which are the following: Kitab al-Tara’if, Kitab al-Azilla, Kitab al-Makasib ( a Book on Earnings), Kitab al-Hajj (a Book on hajj), Kitab al-Sayd wa al-Dhabaih (a Book on Hunting and Slaughtering), Kitab al-Shra’ wa al-Bay‘ (A Book on Buying and Selling), Kitab al-Wasiya (a Book on Will), and Kitab al-Nawadir (a Book on Miscellaneous Traditions). He died in the year 220 A. H.[2]

[1] Ibid., pp. 126-128.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 252.

246. Muhammed Bin al-Sabah

In his book al-Rijal, Shaykh al-Tusi has numbered him as one of the companions of the Imam (Musa) al-Kazim, peace be on him. Concerning him, al-Najashi has said: “He is a reliable Kufan. He has a book. Ahmed b. ‘Abd al-Wahid has told us about the book. Ibn Dawud has mentioned him in the first part of His Rijal.”[1]

247. Muhammed Bin Sadaqa al-Anbari al-Basri

His kunya is Abu Ja‘far. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi al-Hasan Musa and al-Rida, peace be on them. He has a book on Musa b. Ja‘far, peace be on him.[2]

248. Muhammed Bin ‘Abd Allah al-Jallab al-Basri

He is one of the companions of Imam Musa al-Kazim, peace be on him, and is a Waqifite.[3]

249. Muhammed Bin ‘Adhafir Bin ‘Isa al-Sayrafi al-Meda’ini

He is trustworthy. He narrated traditions on the authority of Abi al-Hasan Musa and al-Rida, peace be on them. He lived for a long time until the days of Imam al-Rida, peace be on him. He has a book on which there are different narrations. He died at the age of 93 years old.[4]

250. Muhammed Bin ‘Ali Bin al-Nu‘man

His Kunya is Abu Ja‘far and is better known as Mu’min al-Taq. He is among great Muslim thinkers and among the notables of the time who widely opened the gate of history and passed through it as free people and recorded for their community and their time glory and pride. Mu’min al-Taq was on top of Muslim religious scholars in his jurisprudence, his knowledge, and his defending the religion. However, the early historians mentioned nothing of his viewpoints and legacy except a little bit. Those who harbored malice against him criticized him and fastened on him various accusations and doubts and made him carry many burdens. The reason for that, as we think, is his many attitudes through which he argued with the Imams of the Islamic creeds and the rest of the religious scholars of his time, and clearly proved that the Imamate was a correct thought and that it harmonized with the reality and guidance of Islam, the affair that moved spites against him.

Any way, the Shi‘a nicknamed this great giant Mu’min al-Taq, while his opponents nicknamed him Shaytan al-Taq. The reason for that, as they said, is that he sat to exchange money in a market situated at Taq al-Mahamil, in Kufa, so he disputed with a man on a forged dirham. He overcame his opponent, and he was given this

[1] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 3, p. 132.
[2] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 282.
[3] Al-Khulasa.
[4] Al-Nejashi, Rijal, p. 278.

nickname.[1] This justification has no scientific meaning. For this attitude does not require giving him such a nickname and spreading it among the people. The correct thing is that Abu Hanifa was the first to give him this nickname after a debate took place in his presence between him and one of the Harawriya.[2] The Shi‘a gave him this nickname to refute Abu Hanifa.

An author has attacked Mu’min al-Taq, saying: “Surely, he (Mu’min al-Taq) is cross-eyed and wicked!”[3] This weak reason resulted from a great malice against this great mujahid, who defended Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, and supported their affairs. It is necessary for us to pause to give a brief account of him:

1. His Graduation

Mu’min al-Taq joined the school of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, and took some of its brilliant sciences. He specialized in Islamic philosophy and theology. He was among the great scholars in this science; none was like him in it. Imam al-Sadiq delegated him to undertake scientific debates with the rest of the Islamic schools. He accompanied the Imam and took some of his sciences. When Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, moved to the Abode of Everlastingness (lit. passed away), Mu’min al-Taq devoted himself to Imam Musa and took from him many sciences and much knowledge. Accordingly, he was among the most prominent religious scholars of his time.

2. His high Position

Mu’min al-Taq was among the Muslim leading thinkers. The religious scholars of his time unanimously acknowledged his scientific position. Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, praised his merits and his nearness to him.[4] He compared him to the great scholars from among his companions, saying: “The most lovable people, alive and dead, to me are: Burayd b. Mu‘awiya al-‘Ijjli, Zarara b. A‘yun, Muhammed b. Muslim, and Abu Ja‘far al-Ahwal (Mu’min al-Taq).”[5]

This tradition is a proof of that he had an important position with the Imam, peace be on him. For he regarded him as one of his unique companions.

3 His Specialization

Mu’min al-Taq specialized, as we have mentioned, in theology, so he was among those skillful in this art. Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, entrusted him with debating with the religious scholars of his time; meanwhile, he prevented his companions from dealing with this subject matter, for they were poor in this

[1] Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 300.
[2] Al-A'lam, vol. 6, p. 154.
[3] Mukhtasar al-Tuhfa al-Ithnay 'Ashariya, p. 2.
[4] Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 301.
[5] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 432.

science. Abu Khalid al-Kamili has said: “I saw Abu Ja‘far (Mu’min al-Taq) sitting in al-Rawda. The people of Medina cut off his buttons while he was answering their questions. I drew near to him and asked him: ‘Surely Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) had prevented us from dealing with theology, and he asked me: ‘Did he order you to say that to me?’ ‘No, by Allah,’ I replied, ‘but he ordered me not to debate with anyone on theology.’ ‘Go and obey him in what he has ordered you,’ he retorted. I came in to Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) and told him about the story took place between me and Mu’min al-Taq and about his statement that I had to go and to obey him in what he had ordered me. He, peace be on him, smiled and said: ‘O Khalid, surely Mu’min al-Taq debate with the people on theology, so he increases and decreases. However, you do not increase when they debate with you.’”[1] This tradition is evidence for that Mu’min al-Tadq had great merits, knowledge, and culture. In addition to his specialization in this art, he was among the gifted poets, but he left poetry and practiced theology.[2]

4. His Debates

His high debates with his opponents are evidence for his skillfulness and his excellence over them. He was famous for his firm arguments, strong proofs and conclusions. The following are some of his debates:

A. With al-Dahhak

The Kharijites went in revolt in Kufa and controlled it. Al-Dahhak headed their movements and called himself the Commander of the faithful. When his companions saw Mu’min al-Taq waking towards him, they jumped and surrounded him, but he ordered them not to hurt him. Then Mu’min al-Taq turned to him and said to him: “Surely I am a man with knowledge of my religion. I have heard that you describe justice, so I would like to enter (a debate) with you.”

Al-Dahhak was happy at that and regarded it as a victory for him, so he said to his companions: “Certainly, if this (Mu’min al-Taq) enter (a debate) with you, he will benefit you.”

Mu’min al-Taq approached al-Dahhak and asked him the following question: -Why did you renounce ‘Ali b. Abi Talib? -Because he appointed someone as arbitrator in respect with the religion of Allah. -Do you regard as lawful killing him or fighting him who appoints someone as arbitrator in respect with the religion of Allah? Yes? -Tell me about the religion on which I have come to debate with you: If my

[1] Ibid., 122.
[2] Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 301.

demonstration overcomes yours or yours overcomes mine, then who will draw the attention of the mistaken to his mistake and decide the rightness of the right? Therefore, we have no escape from that we must appoint someone to decide between us.

Al-Dahhak had no escape from saying:

This-he indicated with his hand to a companion of his-is the arbitrator between us; he has knowledge of the religion. Mu’min al-Taq found a way to criticize him and to abolish his beliefs, saying to him: -Have you appointed this person as an arbitrator in respect with the religion on which I have to debate with you? -Yes. Mu’min al-Taq came near to the Kharijites and showed them the mistakes of their leader, saying to them: “Surely, your leader has appointed someone as an arbitrator in respect with Allah’s religion; then that is up to you!” The Kharijites attacked al-Dahhak and cut him into pieces with their own swords.[1] Mu’min al-Taq went out and left disgrace and shame hurt their souls. B. With Abu Hanifa Mu’min al-Taq had with Abu Hanifa wonderful debates indicating his victory and excellence over him. He met with him, and he sneeringly asked him: -I have heard something about you, O People of Shi’a! -What is it?

-When one of you dies, you break his left hand, that he may be given his book in his right hand. Soon Mu’min al-Taq aimed at him an arrow of his abundant knowledge, saying to him: -O Nu’man, this lie has been fabricated against us. However, I have heard about you, O People of the Murji’a, that when one of you dies, you supply him with water through the back, that he may not be thirsty on the Day of Resurrection. Abu Hanifa was unable to give an answer. He said to him with the words of someone deserted: -These lies have been fabricated against us and you.[2]

[1] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 124.
[2] Ibid., pp. 125-126.

Mu’min al-Taq met with Abu Hanifa another time, and he asked him:

-O Abu Ja‘far, do you believe in the return? -Yes. Abu Hanifa sneeringly said to him: -Give me five hundred dinars. When I and you return, I will give it back to you. So Mu’min al-Taq said to him: -I want someone to guarantee that you will not turn into a monkey, that I will be able to take back what you will borrow from me. Abu Hanifa was unable to answer him. He went away deserted.[1] He met with him another time, and he asked him: -Abu Ja‘far, what is your opinion of contemporary marriage? Do you think that it is Islamically lawful? -Yes.

-Then what prevents you from ordering your wives to marry contemporarily and earn you (some money)?

-Not all jobs are desirable even if they are lawful. People have ranks through which their importance is high. However, Abu Hanifa, what is your opinion of wine? Do you think that it is lawful? -Yes.

-Then what prevents you from letting your wives sit in wine shops and earn you (some money)? -One for one, but your arrow is more penetrative![2] When Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, passed away, Abu Hanifa gloated over his death and said to Mu’min al-Taq: -Abu Ja‘far, Your Imam has died!

-But your Imam is among those who have been granted a respite until the Day of Resurrection. By that he meant Satan.[3] He had with Abu Hanifa other debates indicating his excellence over him and his ability to recall answers.

[1] Tanqeeh al-Maqal, vol. 3, p. 161.
[2] Al-Kulayni, Chapter on Temporary Marriage.
[3] Al-Keshi, Rijal, p. 123.

C. With Bin Abi al-‘Awja’

Mu’min al-Taq met with Bin Abi al-‘Awja’, the head of the unbelievers in the Arab world, and he asked him the following question:

-Whoever creates or produces something to know that it is of his creation is its creator, isn’t he?
-Yes.
-Come after a month or two months, that I may show you that!

Mu’min al-Taq said: “So I went to the Sacred House of Allah. Then I came in to Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, and told him about the affair, and he, peace be on him, said: ‘Surely he has prepared two ewes for you. He will bring out the two ewes full of worms for you in the presence of some of his companions and say to you: ‘I have created these worms.’ Say to him: ‘If they are of your creation, then distinguish the males from females.’ He will say to you: ‘This is not of your thoughts; rather you have brought it from al-Hijaz.’ Then he will ask you: ‘Do you not claim that He (Allah) is rich?’ Say: ‘Yes.’ He will also ask you: ‘Do you think that He is rich while he has neither gold nor silver?’ Say to him: ‘Yes.’ He will say to you: ‘How will this be rich?’ Say to him: ‘If riches among us on the part of gold or silver or trade, then all this is of that with which people deal, so which thing is in comparison greater and more appropriate than that which is said: ‘Who is richer-the One Who by Himself creates riches before it was a thing and makes people rich through it or he who benefits by a gift, alms, and a trade?’”

Mu’min al-Taq returned home and met with Ibn Abi al-‘Awja’. The previous talk took place between them, and the latter said to the former: “By Allah, this (thought) is not of yours! By Allah, this (thought) is of that which carried by camels!”[1]

Mu’min al-Taq had other debates indicating his abundant knowledge.